Author: mushyferretd4bf33d4

Every day, fake electrical parts find their way into various markets, but happily, there are techniques the authorities can use to identify incoming counterfeit goods. We’ll discuss the multiple methods for electronic component examination in this article.

DNA marking, which refers to distinctive marks that have been applied by the manufacturer but cannot be imitated by anyone else, can be used to test electronic components. The Department of Defense demands DNA labeling on all of its high-risk microcircuitries.

X-ray inspection is another widely used technique for examining electronic components. A sample of an authentic item is used in X-ray examinations to compare the internal structure of arriving parts. You’d be astonished to learn that while counterfeit goods may appear genuine to the naked eye, they differ from natural internal components like wire bonding or die frames.

Another strategy for reducing the influx of fake goods is X-RF inspection. An X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy equipment is used in X-RF inspection to verify a part’s validity.

Through decapsulation, counterfeit device inspection is another technique. Typically, this technique is used to test semiconductors. Decapsulation entails removing the semiconductor wafer’s outer packing so that laser die etching and authentication markings can be applied.

Chemical procedures, which disclose counterfeits by heating acid, and mechanical methods, which include physically breaking, chopping, and cutting components, are two other techniques for inspecting fake goods.

And there are numerous other ways to distinguish between genuine and fraudulent components. Remember that counterfeit goods can be created in various methods, such as by sanding and remarking, blacktopping and remarking screening, and re-balling things from no-lead to led without the OEM’s consent.

Manufacturers and governmental organizations continually develop new techniques to identify fake components. The most recent of these techniques are:

Parametric Testing or Curve Tracing, which verifies whether a product sample has the same electrical properties as the original, and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy, or SAM, which detects laser etching beneath blacktop material.

The dot-com boom, outsourcing and offshoring of manufacturing operations, the ease of information sharing on the Internet, China’s admission to the World Trade Organization, and shipping firms like FedEx that don’t check small items are just a few of the causes of the entry of counterfeit goods into the market.

Through decapsulation, counterfeit device inspection is another technique. Typically, this technique is used to test semiconductors. Decapsulation entails removing the semiconductor wafer’s outer packing so that laser die etching and authentication markings can be applied.

However, the United States’ ongoing practice of exporting its e-waste to China and other developing nations may have had the most significant impact on the explosion in counterfeit businesses. E-waste serves as the raw material for creating fake goods. Most industrialized nations around the globe ratified the Basel Convention. This treaty forbade the export of e-waste to developing countries, in the latter part of 1989, except for the United States and a small number of other nations.

When it comes to microchips, a new player has emerged, and its name is graphene. It is a brand-new technology that could result in significant advantages in a few years. According to IBM, their grapheme chip is the most advanced and valuable integrated circuit ever created. It can perform almost 10,000 times better than they had previously stated and is the size of a wafer.

Various problems must be resolved when producing an atomically thin substance like graphene. The graphene strand is sensitive and challenging to manage, which is the difficulty. Although a single strand of graphene is so light and fragile that it is difficult to create with any degree of consistency, the material is incredibly strong relative to its weight.

If you were only manufacturing one strand, the issue would not be significant, but when you need to produce billions of strands, the accuracy rate becomes quite a hurdle. In light of this, if the market demands billions of graphene microchips, how beneficial would they be if they were produced in large quantities?

The IBM research teams claim to have perfected a novel solution to this production challenge. It is a method that uses the CMOS manufacturing process as its foundation. The ability to create a multistage radio frequency receiver for graphene has been claimed. This is the most modern graphene integrated circuit that is currently available.

A different team of scientists from MIT has been experimenting with graphene oxide. This graphene oxide has demonstrated utility. For instance, they created a graphene oxide by adding an oxygen atom to the graphene. This enables graphene oxide to go from being a conductor to a semiconductor. They assert, though, that the oxygenation of every strand at this time is still reliable. The final line is that unless grapheme computer chips are entirely trustworthy, they will not be able to be sold.

This innovative therapeutic procedure uses a low temperature of between 40 and 80 degrees Celsius. This is an improvement compared to the conventional approach of a high 900-degree therapy. The development of graphene processors is progressing steadily toward commercialization. The producers will then be able to create things on a more profitable larger scale. Once these graphene chips are operational, they will eventually take the place of the more widely used silicon chips.

According to IBM, they invented the grapheme technique and advanced it to the point where various graphene devices and circuits can handle all of the demands of contemporary wireless communication. Because of this, graphene can be compared to silicon technologies. Supratik Guha, director of the physical science division of IBM’s research facilities, is enthusiastic about the wide range of applications for this new graphene semiconductor.

When selecting the ideal E-bike controller, take into account the following factors:

Power and Controller Voltage

When choosing a motor controller, check the voltage and power. If you buy a non-programmable controller, ensure its voltage and power are equal to or slightly higher than the motors. If the engine is 24 volts, so should the controller.

Programmable controllers can limit this power. The voltage of the controller, battery and motor must equal. This will reduce the controller’s heating and increase its reliability.

Rating for Controller Current

Ensure the chosen controller has a lower current rating than the battery’s output current. A 9-MOSFET controller’s maximum current is typically 25A, compared to 18A for 6-MOSFET controllers, 40A for 15-MOSFET controllers, etc.

Batteries’ phase and current

The battery current and phase current are sometimes confused by novices. These are two distinct objects. The motor is connected to the phase current. The phase current may exceed the battery current by a significant amount.

Take a welding machine, for example; it draws 10A from the network and outputs 100A total. The controller operates on the same idea. It has a 30A battery draw capacity and can supply 80A or so to the motor.

You must ensure that the phase current of the controller and the current motor match when picking an E-bike controller for the motor. The controller will become increasingly hot if it supplies more recently than the existing motor capacity can handle.

The varnish coating on the wires loses its quality when the motor overheats. It causes a short circuit, which causes the engine to warm up rapidly and harm the windings.

As a result, the phase current of the controller in standard E-bike controllers must coincide with the motor current. If so, this setup will prevent individual components from failing.

Sine wave vs. square wave controllers: what is the controller driving type?

The phase voltage waveform of the two controllers is different. One produces a rectangular waveform, whereas the other has a sinusoidal waveform.

Due to their lower noise generation, sine wave controllers are widely used. As a result, it is more effective when climbing hills or lifting big loads. Additionally, these controllers control general operations more smoothly and predictably. Sine wave controllers, however, use a lot more energy and are, therefore, more expensive. Additionally, they can only run on matched motors.

Due to their lower price, people like square wave controllers. They can run on a variety of motors. These controllers offer increased efficiency when abrupt braking or acceleration occurs.

They provide more noise and less smooth or punchy control than sine wave controllers. Additionally, square wave controllers have worse motor efficiency when climbing a hill or pulling a large load.

Is it a Dual-mode controller or a Hall Sensor/Non-Hall Sensor drive?

The controller must be Hall-sensor or dual mode if your E-bike motor has a Hall sensor. The motor’s hall sensor detects rotation, and the controller generates a voltage in response to sensor signals.

In the mainstream of power transmission throughout the contemporary industrial era, gear and belt systems have been the standard. Traction drives, a different technology, have been in use for a long time and offer notable gains in simplicity, efficiency, and noise/vibration. Traction drives were created in the 1800s, but it wasn’t until recently that their advantages could be fully reaped, thanks to manufacturing, materials, and fluids developments.

The first traction drives patent material dated back to C.W. Hunt CVT in 1887, and NASA has been interested in traction drive technology since the 1970s. General Motors worked with traction drives from the 1920s through the 1940s. There has always been an interest since traction drive technology provides advantages. However, the benefits of traction drives could not be appreciated until businesses like Santolubes began to create new fluid technology. As an illustration, modern fluids have coefficients of friction in the.1–.12 range as opposed to the.05–.06 content of previous fluids allows for more torque transmission with lower regular forces. More innovative designs may now be produced thanks to the era of CNC machines, which allows for more precise manufacturing. Traction drives are becoming more popular for various reasons, including fluid new technology, simpler designs, improved production techniques, and cleaner steel. To name a few applications, traction drives are currently found in superchargers, turbochargers, electric vehicles, pumps, HVAC, and medical. As word of the technology grows, a lot more will emerge.

The Function of Traction Drives is Very similar to a train wheel in size.

To produce useable rotational torque, traction drives use normal force in conjunction with multiple viscosity traction fluids. Under pressure, these fluids momentarily solidify, preventing metal-to-metal contact while dispersing pressure at the contact patch and imparting torque. Compared to the existing mainstream technology, such as gear and belt systems, traction drives’ rolling motion enables them to be very efficient and low noise producers. The sliding action and churning of the oil/grease caused by the relative movement of the gear teeth cause gear systems to lose efficiency. The bending and sliding motions of both toothed belts and regular V-belts cause belts to lose efficiency. Toothed belts are a gear set, but one of the gears is made of rubber-like material.

The normal force that must be applied to the rolling parts by many modern traction drives must be used by a separate mechanism. These methods include hydraulic clamping and spring loading. Some drives feature fixed loading, which means that the industry will slip when the torque exceeds the useable torque permitted by the limited amount of normal force. This is not the best option in either scenario since utilizing a different mechanism to provide the usual staff adds complexity and expense. Additionally, the rolling elements always experience significant Hertzian contact stresses under fixed normal force, which shortens their lifespan. Instead of requiring an additional mechanism to provide the necessary average power to transmit the requisite torque, a new, novel solution for traction drives resolves this problem. The normal force is proportional to the required torque—an ideal combination.

Circuit Open

A circuit must always create a loop, as was previously stated, for electricity to flow through it. However, an open circuit prevents current from flowing when one or more components are disconnected, either on purpose (by a switch) or unintentionally (broken parts). In other words, an open circuit is any circuit that does not form a loop.

Concealed Circuit

A closed circuit is one that continuously forms a loop. As a result, it is a closed circuit’s complete opposite. A closed circuit still exists when a course is full but has no function. For instance, a system linked to a dead battery may not be active, but it is still a closed circuit.

Brief Circuit

A low-resistance connection develops between two points in an electrical circuit when there is a short circuit. As a result, the current tends to move through this just-made connection instead of flowing along the desired path. For instance, the electricity will flow directly through the battery rather than through the circuit if the negative and positive terminals are connected directly.

However, short circuits frequently result in catastrophic mishaps because the current can flow at dangerously high levels. Therefore, a short course can harm electronic devices, cause batteries to blow up, and even ignite a fire in commercial or residential structures.

Circuit Boards, printed (PCBs)

The majority of electronic equipment needs sophisticated electronic circuits. Designers must therefore place teeny electronic parts in precise order on a circuit board. It consists of a plastic board with several holes for attaching the components and copper connection rails on one side. A printed circuit board, or PCB, is a plastic board with the pattern of a circuit board chemically printed onto it.

Built-in Circuits (ICs)

Most current devices, like computers and smartphones, require sophisticated circuits with thousands or millions of components, despite the many benefits that PCBs may provide. Integrated circuits have a role in this. They are tiny electronic circuits that can fit on a silicon chip. In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments created the first integrated circuit. ICs’ only function is to boost electronic devices’ productivity while minimizing their size and manufacturing costs. The sophistication of integrated circuits has increased throughout time as technology has advanced. Personal computers, laptops, mobile phones, and other consumer devices are becoming more affordable and advanced every day because of this.

Electronic Parts

Modern technology has entirely automated electrical circuits, particularly when making ICs and PCBs. Depending on the complexity of a course, the number and placement of components can change. However, just a few common parts are used in its construction.

Electronic devices have permeated every aspect of our life. They have improved the comfort and convenience of our lives. Electronic devices are used in various fields, from aviation to the medical and healthcare sectors. In actuality, the electronic and computer revolutions are interconnected.

Most devices contain tiny electronic circuits that can process information and operate machinery. To put it simply, electronic circuits keep different electrical equipment alive. In-depth explanations of the standard electronic components used in electronic circuits are provided in this tutorial.

I’ll give a general review of electronic circuits in this essay. Then I’ll go into more detail about the seven components. I’ll go over each type’s makeup, operation, purpose, and importance of each element.

  • Capacitor
  • Resistor
  • Diode
  • Transistor
  • Inductor
  • Relay
  • Crystalline Quartz

Overview of electronic circuits

An electronic circuit is a device that controls and directs electric current to carry out a variety of tasks, such as data transfer, calculation, and signal amplification. It is made up of a variety of parts, including diodes, resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors, and resistors. The components are linked together using conductive cables or traces. A circuit can only be said to be finished if it forms a loop and begins and ends at the exact location.

Circuit Components in an Electronic

An electrical circuit’s complexity and several components may alter depending on how it will be used. The most straightforward course, however, has three parts: a conducting route, a voltage source, and a load.

  • Element 1: Taking the Lead

Through the conducting path, the electric current travels. Even though simple circuits still need copper wires, conductive traces quickly take their place. Copper sheets placed onto a non-conductive substrate are what make up conductive traces. They are frequently employed in intricate, tiny circuits like printed circuit boards (PCBs).

  • Element 2: Source of voltage

Electric current can safely flow through a circuit as its primary purpose. The voltage source is thus the first essential component. A battery, generator, or another two-terminal device, such as one of these, provides a potential difference (voltage) between two locations in a circuit so that current can flow through it.

  • Element 3: load

A load is a circuit component that uses power to carry out a specific task. The most accessible bag is a light bulb. But diverse loads, such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, and transistors, are present in complex circuits.


There are many basic electronic components used to build electronic circuits. Without these components, the circuit design is never ready or has not worked properly. These components include resistors, diodes, capacitors, integrated circuits and so on. Some of these components consist of two or more connectors glued to the circuit boards. Some may be packaged types, such as integrated circuits that contain different semiconductors. Here is a brief overview of each of these basic electronic components and you can get detailed information by clicking on the links for each component.

Basic electronic components

Electronic components are separate basic units for use in any electronic electronics system that has different domains. These components are the basic elements used for the design of electrical and electronic circuits. These components have at least two connectors used to connect the circuit. The classification of electronic components can be done, for example, on the basis of active, passive and electromechanical applications.

The most important electronic components

The design of the electronic circuit takes into account the following:

Basic electronic components: capacitors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc.
Power supplies: Signal generators and direct current sources.
Measurement and analysis equipment: cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO), multimeters, etc.

Active components

These components are used to amplify electrical signals to produce electricity. The operation of these components can be done as an electrical circuit in the electrical equipment to protect the voltage and current. The active component performs its function because it is controlled by a power supply. All of these components require a power source, which is usually removed from the DC circuit. All high quality active components include an oscillator, an IC (integrated circuit) and a transistor.

Passive components

Components of this type cannot use the power supply of an electronic circuit because they do not depend on a power supply, except for those available in the AC circuit to which they are connected. As a result, they cannot amplify even if they can increase the current, otherwise the voltage or current. These components mainly include bidirectional connectors, such as resistors, inductors, transformers and capacitors.

Electromechanical components

These components use an electrical signal to make some mechanical changes, such as rotating the motor. Typically, these components use an electric current to generate a magnetic field so that physical movement can occur. Different types of switches and relays can be used in this type of components. Devices that have both an electrical process and a mechanical process are electromechanical devices. The electromechanical component is used manually to produce electricity by mechanical movement.

Passive electronic components

These components can store or maintain energy in the form of current or voltage. Some of these components are discussed below.


A resistor is a bipolar passive electronic component used to resist or limit current. The resistor operates according to the principle of Ohm’s law, where “the voltage applied to the terminals of the resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it”


An electronic circuit is a structure that controls and directs electric current to perform a variety of functions, including signal amplification, calculation, and data transmission. It consists of several different components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes.

Consumer electronics: office equipment such as computers, personal computers, scanners and printers, fax machines, headlamps, etc. , VCRs, DVD players, color TVs, microphone and speaker, video game consoles. Advanced equipment for consumers, such as installation box, ATM, dishwasher, smartphones, PDA (personal digital assistant), barcode scanners, points of sale. Recording units for playback and optical recording, as well as portable infotainment. Examples are DVDs, hard disk drives, portable MP3 players.

Industrial electronics:

Electronic components are used in industrial automation and motion control, machine learning, motor operation control, mechatronics and robotics, power conversion technologies, photovoltaic systems, renewable energy, applications, power electronics and biomechanics. Smart grid systems: smart electrical systems collect information about communication technology and then respond based on energy consumption. It is an application of intelligence, computation and electrical systems connected to the network. Industrial automation and motion control: Today’s machines replace people with increased productivity, time and costs. In addition, safety in uncontrolled work was also taken into account. Therefore, delegating human assets from automation has become the best option for the industry.

Medical applications:

Develop advanced tools for data storage and physiological analysis. They have proven to be more useful in diagnosing and curing diseases. Some medical devices and equipment use electronic components: respiratory monitors to determine the patient’s condition caused by changes in body temperature, heart rate, respiration and blood flow. The defibrillator causes an electric shock to the heart muscle and restores the heart to its normal working state. Blood glucose meter. Pace Maker reduces and increases heart rate and more.
Defense and aviation: Defense and aerospace applications include: missile launch systems, space rocket launchers, aircraft systems, cockpit controllers, military runways, bomb protection for military use

Vehicle: anti-collision unit, infotainment system, anti-lock braking system, cruise control, traction control, window regulators, electronic control unit (ECU) and airbag.

Electronics and Casino Game Use – What You Need to Know

In the casino and electronics world there are two types of people that you would be most likely to see walking around, one of these being the electronics store owner. For the owner of a electronics store in Las Vegas or Atlantic City this can be very exciting news indeed, after all, they have a great deal of inventory available for their customers to purchase. They can also serve as a liaison between the players and the games, assisting them with their needs and assisting them in finding what they need quickly so they do not have to take their items home with them. This is a business that requires a great deal of patience and knowledge so that the players can find the electronics that they need without having to leave the games.

When shopping at the electronics store in Las Vegas or Atlantic City it is important to remember that you are dealing with electronics shops and not brick and mortar businesses, so you are not purchasing actual merchandise; rather, you will be purchasing credit card information, which will then be used to make purchases until you either pay for your purchase using that credit card or leave the electronics shop. Because all purchases are done with credit cards you need to be very careful about spending too much money, because when you do so you will incur costly late fees. It is important that before you use your credit card to make a purchase at an electronics shop that you read all of the fine print associated with such purchases.

You should also keep in mind that the vast majority of electronics stores in Las Vegas and Atlantic City have online websites. These websites will generally list prices for the products that they sell as well as provide a link to the casino where the product can be purchased. You will want to make sure that when you are actually in the store that you are indeed buying electronics for the gaming table and not some other merchandise. There are many different types of gambling at both of these locations, so you should do some homework as to which games you prefer to play before visiting the electronics store. Either way, Las Vegas and Atlantic City have made shopping for electronics and casino equipment easier for many people, so you should definitely check them out while you are there.


Basic electronic components, the operation of which depends on an external power supply, are called active components. They can amplify signals and / or process signals. Some active components are transistors, integrated circuits.


A transistor is a nonlinear semiconductor. The transistor is considered one of the most important devices in electronics. The transistor has changed many aspects of human life. Transistors have two main functions, which amplify the input signals and act as semiconductor switches. The transistor acts as a switch when used in the saturation or interruption interval. Amplifies signals when used in the active area. It offers a very high input resistance and a very low output resistance.

Transistors are classified according to the structure of bipolar transverse transistors and field effect transistors.

Transistor symbol

The most popular and commonly used transistors are BC547, 2N2222. Below are some common transistor packages:

A metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is a semiconductor device that differs in structure from a bipolar junction transistor, although the applications are the same as coupling and amplification. It has four terminals such as Drain, Gate, Source and Body. The chassis is short-circuited to the source socket. The gate is insulated from the pipe next to a very thin layer of metal oxide. Therefore, it offers a very high durability compared to BJT.

By checking the gate voltage (VGS + ve / -ve) of the channel along which the charge carriers (electrons or holes) flow from the source to the channel, the width can be checked. P-channel MOSFET has a P-channel area between the source and channel, and N-channel MOSFET has an N-channel area.

The advantages of MOSFET over BJT

  • Very high resistance to entry
  • Reduced opposition to the state
  • Reduced energy losses
  • High operating frequency
  • Transistor operation
  • Transistor operation
  • Use of transistors (BJT / FET)

Amplification of analog signals.

Used as replacement units in SMPS, microcontrollers, etc.
Overvoltage / undervoltage protection
signal modulation and demodulation circuits.
Current control in converters and chargers (high power transistors)
Types of transistor packages

For BJT and MOSFET packaging, the transistors are available in orifice (DIP) and SMD versions. for example, DIP: TO-92, TO-220 and SMD: SOT23, SOT223, TO-252, D2PAK.

Transistor selection parameters

When selecting a transistor in any user of the circuit, consider the following parameters

  • Maximum collection current (Ic)
  • Maximum collector voltage (Vce)
  • VBE voltage
  • Saturation Vce (village) tension
  • Current gain, hfe / ß
  • Input resistor
  • The first answer
  • Reverse distribution voltage
  • Maximum return current.
  • Evaporation of force
  • Interface temperature
  • size
  • Switching time / frequency

Integrated circuits

An integrated circuit (IC) is an electronic circuit embedded in a semiconductor board, which is usually silicon. This disk has millions of compact transistors, resistors and capacitors connected to metal strips. ICs are powered by an external power supply for operation. ICs perform certain functions, such as data processing and signal processing. The physical size of an IC disk is very small compared to discrete circuits, so it is called a microchip or just a chip. Due to its small size, the IC has low power consumption.


A diode is a two-terminal device that permits just one direction of electric current to pass. As a result, it functions similarly to a check valve or a one-way street in the electronic world. It’s a device that converts an Alternating Current (AC) to a Direct Current (DC) (DC). A semiconductor material (semiconductor diode) or a vacuum tube are used to make it (vacuum tube diode). The majority of diodes nowadays, however, are constructed of semiconductor materials, mainly silicon.

A. Structure

There are two types of diodes: vacuum diodes and semiconductor diodes, as previously stated. Two electrodes (cathode and anode) are put inside a vacuum glass tube to form a vacuum diode. P-type and n-type semiconductors are used in semiconductor diodes. As a result, it’s called a p-n junction diode. Silicon is the most common material, however germanium or selenium can also be used.

B. What Is It and How Does It Work?

When a filament heats the cathode, an unseen cloud of electrons known as space charge accumulates in the vacuum. Although electrons are emitted from the cathode, they are repelled by the negative space charge. No current passes via the circuit because electrons cannot reach the anode. The space charge dissipates when the anode is made positive. Current begins to flow from the cathode to the anode as a result. As a result, electric current travels only from the cathode to the anode and never from the anode to the cathode within the diode.

Diode with a P-N Junction

A p-n junction diode is made up of p-type and n-type silicon semiconductors. Boron is commonly doped into p-type semiconductors, resulting in holes (positive charge). On the other hand, an n-type semiconductor is doped with antimony, which adds a few additional electrons (negative charge) to it. As a result, electric current can pass between the two semiconductors.

When you combine p-type and n-type blocks, the n-additional type’s electrons join with the p-holes type’s to form a depletion zone with no free electrons or holes. In other words, current cannot flow via the diode.

When the negative terminal of the battery is connected to n-type silicon and the positive terminal is connected to p-type silicon (forward-bias), current begins to flow because electrons and holes can now pass across the junction. No current flows through the diode if the terminals are reversed (reverse-bias), since holes and electrons are pushed apart from each other, enlarging the depletion zone. A junction diode, like a vacuum diode, can only allow current to flow in one direction.

C. Purpose and Importance

Though diodes are one of the most basic components in an electronic circuit, they have a wide range of applications.

The rectification of AC electricity to DC power is the most common and important application of a diode. A half-wave (single diode) or full-wave (four diodes) rectifier is typically used to convert AC power to DC power, especially in residential power supplies. Only half of the AC waveform travels through a diode when it receives AC power. Because this voltage pulse is utilised to charge the capacitor, it creates constant and smooth DC currents. To multiply a modest AC voltage into high DC outputs, various combinations of diodes and capacitors are utilised to produce various types of voltage multipliers.

Diodes with a Bypass

Solar panels are frequently protected by bypass diodes. Overheating occurs when the current from the other cells passes through a broken or dirty solar cell. As a result, the total output power drops, resulting in hot patches. To protect the solar cells from overheating, the diodes are connected in parallel with them. This simple setup controls the voltage across the faulty solar cell while enabling current to flow to the external circuit through intact cells.

Protection Against Voltage Surges

Most inductive loads create a high voltage when the power supply is abruptly stopped. This sudden voltage increase may cause damage to the loads. However, by attaching a diode across the inductive loads, you can protect expensive equipment. These diodes are called by a variety of names, including snubber diode, flyback diode, suppression diode, and freewheeling diode, depending on the type of security.