Category Archive : Electronics


There are many basic electronic components used to build electronic circuits. Without these components, the circuit design is never ready or has not worked properly. These components include resistors, diodes, capacitors, integrated circuits and so on. Some of these components consist of two or more connectors glued to the circuit boards. Some may be packaged types, such as integrated circuits that contain different semiconductors. Here is a brief overview of each of these basic electronic components and you can get detailed information by clicking on the links for each component.

Basic electronic components

Electronic components are separate basic units for use in any electronic electronics system that has different domains. These components are the basic elements used for the design of electrical and electronic circuits. These components have at least two connectors used to connect the circuit. The classification of electronic components can be done, for example, on the basis of active, passive and electromechanical applications.

The most important electronic components

The design of the electronic circuit takes into account the following:

Basic electronic components: capacitors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc.
Power supplies: Signal generators and direct current sources.
Measurement and analysis equipment: cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO), multimeters, etc.

Active components

These components are used to amplify electrical signals to produce electricity. The operation of these components can be done as an electrical circuit in the electrical equipment to protect the voltage and current. The active component performs its function because it is controlled by a power supply. All of these components require a power source, which is usually removed from the DC circuit. All high quality active components include an oscillator, an IC (integrated circuit) and a transistor.

Passive components

Components of this type cannot use the power supply of an electronic circuit because they do not depend on a power supply, except for those available in the AC circuit to which they are connected. As a result, they cannot amplify even if they can increase the current, otherwise the voltage or current. These components mainly include bidirectional connectors, such as resistors, inductors, transformers and capacitors.

Electromechanical components

These components use an electrical signal to make some mechanical changes, such as rotating the motor. Typically, these components use an electric current to generate a magnetic field so that physical movement can occur. Different types of switches and relays can be used in this type of components. Devices that have both an electrical process and a mechanical process are electromechanical devices. The electromechanical component is used manually to produce electricity by mechanical movement.

Passive electronic components

These components can store or maintain energy in the form of current or voltage. Some of these components are discussed below.


A resistor is a bipolar passive electronic component used to resist or limit current. The resistor operates according to the principle of Ohm’s law, where “the voltage applied to the terminals of the resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it”


An electronic circuit is a structure that controls and directs electric current to perform a variety of functions, including signal amplification, calculation, and data transmission. It consists of several different components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes.

Consumer electronics: office equipment such as computers, personal computers, scanners and printers, fax machines, headlamps, etc. , VCRs, DVD players, color TVs, microphone and speaker, video game consoles. Advanced equipment for consumers, such as installation box, ATM, dishwasher, smartphones, PDA (personal digital assistant), barcode scanners, points of sale. Recording units for playback and optical recording, as well as portable infotainment. Examples are DVDs, hard disk drives, portable MP3 players.

Industrial electronics:

Electronic components are used in industrial automation and motion control, machine learning, motor operation control, mechatronics and robotics, power conversion technologies, photovoltaic systems, renewable energy, applications, power electronics and biomechanics. Smart grid systems: smart electrical systems collect information about communication technology and then respond based on energy consumption. It is an application of intelligence, computation and electrical systems connected to the network. Industrial automation and motion control: Today’s machines replace people with increased productivity, time and costs. In addition, safety in uncontrolled work was also taken into account. Therefore, delegating human assets from automation has become the best option for the industry.

Medical applications:

Develop advanced tools for data storage and physiological analysis. They have proven to be more useful in diagnosing and curing diseases. Some medical devices and equipment use electronic components: respiratory monitors to determine the patient’s condition caused by changes in body temperature, heart rate, respiration and blood flow. The defibrillator causes an electric shock to the heart muscle and restores the heart to its normal working state. Blood glucose meter. Pace Maker reduces and increases heart rate and more.
Defense and aviation: Defense and aerospace applications include: missile launch systems, space rocket launchers, aircraft systems, cockpit controllers, military runways, bomb protection for military use

Vehicle: anti-collision unit, infotainment system, anti-lock braking system, cruise control, traction control, window regulators, electronic control unit (ECU) and airbag.

Electronics and Casino Game Use – What You Need to Know

In the casino and electronics world there are two types of people that you would be most likely to see walking around, one of these being the electronics store owner. For the owner of a electronics store in Las Vegas or Atlantic City this can be very exciting news indeed, after all, they have a great deal of inventory available for their customers to purchase. They can also serve as a liaison between the players and the games, assisting them with their needs and assisting them in finding what they need quickly so they do not have to take their items home with them. This is a business that requires a great deal of patience and knowledge so that the players can find the electronics that they need without having to leave the games.

When shopping at the electronics store in Las Vegas or Atlantic City it is important to remember that you are dealing with electronics shops and not brick and mortar businesses, so you are not purchasing actual merchandise; rather, you will be purchasing credit card information, which will then be used to make purchases until you either pay for your purchase using that credit card or leave the electronics shop. Because all purchases are done with credit cards you need to be very careful about spending too much money, because when you do so you will incur costly late fees. It is important that before you use your credit card to make a purchase at an electronics shop that you read all of the fine print associated with such purchases.

You should also keep in mind that the vast majority of electronics stores in Las Vegas and Atlantic City have online websites. These websites will generally list prices for the products that they sell as well as provide a link to the casino where the product can be purchased. You will want to make sure that when you are actually in the store that you are indeed buying electronics for the gaming table and not some other merchandise. There are many different types of gambling at both of these locations, so you should do some homework as to which games you prefer to play before visiting the electronics store. Either way, Las Vegas and Atlantic City have made shopping for electronics and casino equipment easier for many people, so you should definitely check them out while you are there.


Basic electronic components, the operation of which depends on an external power supply, are called active components. They can amplify signals and / or process signals. Some active components are transistors, integrated circuits.


A transistor is a nonlinear semiconductor. The transistor is considered one of the most important devices in electronics. The transistor has changed many aspects of human life. Transistors have two main functions, which amplify the input signals and act as semiconductor switches. The transistor acts as a switch when used in the saturation or interruption interval. Amplifies signals when used in the active area. It offers a very high input resistance and a very low output resistance.

Transistors are classified according to the structure of bipolar transverse transistors and field effect transistors.

Transistor symbol

The most popular and commonly used transistors are BC547, 2N2222. Below are some common transistor packages:

A metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is a semiconductor device that differs in structure from a bipolar junction transistor, although the applications are the same as coupling and amplification. It has four terminals such as Drain, Gate, Source and Body. The chassis is short-circuited to the source socket. The gate is insulated from the pipe next to a very thin layer of metal oxide. Therefore, it offers a very high durability compared to BJT.

By checking the gate voltage (VGS + ve / -ve) of the channel along which the charge carriers (electrons or holes) flow from the source to the channel, the width can be checked. P-channel MOSFET has a P-channel area between the source and channel, and N-channel MOSFET has an N-channel area.

The advantages of MOSFET over BJT

  • Very high resistance to entry
  • Reduced opposition to the state
  • Reduced energy losses
  • High operating frequency
  • Transistor operation
  • Transistor operation
  • Use of transistors (BJT / FET)

Amplification of analog signals.

Used as replacement units in SMPS, microcontrollers, etc.
Overvoltage / undervoltage protection
signal modulation and demodulation circuits.
Current control in converters and chargers (high power transistors)
Types of transistor packages

For BJT and MOSFET packaging, the transistors are available in orifice (DIP) and SMD versions. for example, DIP: TO-92, TO-220 and SMD: SOT23, SOT223, TO-252, D2PAK.

Transistor selection parameters

When selecting a transistor in any user of the circuit, consider the following parameters

  • Maximum collection current (Ic)
  • Maximum collector voltage (Vce)
  • VBE voltage
  • Saturation Vce (village) tension
  • Current gain, hfe / ß
  • Input resistor
  • The first answer
  • Reverse distribution voltage
  • Maximum return current.
  • Evaporation of force
  • Interface temperature
  • size
  • Switching time / frequency

Integrated circuits

An integrated circuit (IC) is an electronic circuit embedded in a semiconductor board, which is usually silicon. This disk has millions of compact transistors, resistors and capacitors connected to metal strips. ICs are powered by an external power supply for operation. ICs perform certain functions, such as data processing and signal processing. The physical size of an IC disk is very small compared to discrete circuits, so it is called a microchip or just a chip. Due to its small size, the IC has low power consumption.

Nowadays, we might know that new electronics will cost us a lot of money if we buy them directly from the shopkeeper. So how to buy electronics at lower prices? As far as I’m concerned, one good way is to buy wholesale electronics, because it will benefit us a lot. And you need to realize that you are asked to do many things if you want to buy wholesale e Cigarettes successfully.

Attend the Local Trade Shows

Nowadays, we might know that new electronics will cost us a lot of money if we buy them directly from the shopkeeper. So how to buy electronics at lower prices? As far as I’m concerned, one good way is to buy wholesale electronics, because it will benefit us a lot. And you need to realize that you are asked to do many things if you want to buy wholesale e Cigarettes successfully. If you don’t know, don’t worry, because I’ll spend some ideas on how to buy wholesale electronics. So if you are a person who wants to buy electronics, you are asked to take the time to read this article.

But it might not be easy to find a reliable wholesaler, for many Distributors might sell counterfeit electronics. So it is necessary for you to check whether the distributor is reliable enough or whether they are e Cigarettes that are of good quality. And that might play an important role in the success of your business.

If you want to buy wholesale electronics from a trusted distributor, so you are asked to gather some information about wholesalers, such as whether their reputation is safe or not and how efficient their productivity is. You need to remember not to accept orders for your electronics unless you have checked that your wholesaler found a trustful. Apart from that, you can also ask a friend or someone who has experience buying wholesale e Cigarettes gives you some useful information about wholesaling. So, you might have the possibility to find a reliable wholesaler through this method.

Use Yellow Pages

You are also asked to do the following even though you have found a reliable distributor. For one thing, you can ask him to provide an electronic sample so you can check whether the quality of the electronics is good. For other things, you are asked to sign a contract with a wholesaler. And the reason is that once there are several disputes after a great agreement, you can resolve this dispute according to the contract. So many details need to be included in the contract, such as delivery date, insurance, wholesale number of cigarettes and joint responsibility and so on.

All in all, you need to pay attention to many details when you are going to buy wholesale electronics. Suppose you have found a dishonest wholesaler and made a deal with him, then you will regret it after you have received poor quality electronics. However, there was no use of crying at that time because colossal losses had been caused. What’s worse, you might face damage to your business after you have been cheated by dishonest wholesalers. So it is very necessary for you to find a good wholesaler if you want to make profit through wholesale products.

Many security-related systems that will use electromechanical technology or Solid-State electronics now use programmable electronics.

IEC 61508 covers functional safety of safety-related systems using programmable electronic and / or electronic (E / E / PE) technology. This standard applies to this system regardless of their application.
Examples of systems related to E / E / PE safety using electrical (or electro-mechanical) technology are interlocking guards and emergency stop systems for machines.

Functional safety

Devices such as programmable controllers, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and digital communication systems (eg bus systems) are part of this trend.

Examples of applications include safe load indicator cranes, variable speed drive motors used to limit speed for protection, systems for interlocking and controlling the exposure dose of medical radiotherapy machines, or indicator lights, anti-lock braking, and engine management systems in cars. Other examples are emergency shutdown systems at hazardous chemical plants, railroad signaling systems and Fly-bywire operations. Surface flight control aircraft are the latest developments including network-based security systems, often facilitated by internet technology.

An exampleis Remote Monitoring, operating or programming from a network-enabled water treatment plant. E / E / PE safety related systems cover all parts of the system needed to carry out safety functions (ie from sensors, through logic control and communication systems, to final actuators, including critical actions from human operators). An E / E / PE system may be related to safety even if it does not have direct control over potentially dangerous equipment. For example, information-based decision support tools might be related to safety if erroneous results affect safety.

IEC 61508 as a basis for other standards Sections 1, 2, 3 and 4 of IEC 61508 are IEC’s basic safety publications. One of the responsibilities of the IEC technical committee is, wherever practical, to utilize this part of IEC 61508 while preparing their own sector or product standards that have E / E / PE related to safety systems within their scope.

Electronic Systems and Electronic Control Systems

For more details see IEC Guide 104, the preparation of safety publications and the use of basic safety publications and group security publications and ISO / IEC 51 guidelines, the safety aspects of the guidelines for their inclusion in the standard. IEC 61508 is the basis for published nuclear sector standards. It is also currently being used as a basis for developing other sector standards (for example machinery, processes) and Product standards (for example the propulsion system). Therefore it affects the development of E / E / PE related to the safety of systems and products in all sectors.

Many IEC 61508 requirements, especially in sections 2 and 3, are not repeated in the application sector or product standard but are referenced instead. The result is that most users will need IEC 61508 too.
The market for each product, component, or subsystem that complies with IEC 61508 has huge potential because in principle they are able to meet the sector standard requirements based on IEC 61508.

Learn about electronic instruments or electronic testing equipment used as devices to detect information from electronic components.

Like every other aspect of technology, electronic gadgets have also experienced major changes in recent years. It certainly would not be an exaggeration to say that modern electronic equipment has changed to be smarter and also easier to use. From communication to health care, from education to safety, electronic equipment is now widely used in every field. Certain electronic instruments are also used as test and measurement tools which are now used in different industrial sectors as well as for domestic use.

The importance of electronics

Today almost all of the equipment that we see around us uses electronic components to some extent. The main advantage of using electronic components is that they make industrial processes easier and faster, which is also with less margin errors. Electronic equipment such as computers have become an inseparable part of modern life. As the demand for electronic gadgets continues to grow throughout the world there is quite a scope of gaining huge profits by trading in electronic equipment.

Electronic test equipment

This equipment is widely used throughout the world. Different types of tests require the use of various types of testing equipment. Depending on the nature of the testing the testing equipment can range from smaller portable instruments to larger laboratory machines. This testing tool is generally found in laboratories related to research and development work. It must be remembered that this machine is sophisticated equipment and therefore, it is important to take the help of professional experts when installing such equipment. Electronic testing equipment generally works with the help of a computer. The processor on the computer is specifically designed for certain testing jobs and so there is almost no room for errors. This testing equipment forms the main part of electronic instruments which are currently used for different technological purposes.

Product availability

Electronic products are widely available today and a person does not need to be under a lot of stress when searching for electronic products if he knows where to look. There are a large number of manufacturers that produce and sell electronic equipment in different price brackets. Because both the larger and smaller brands are available the buyer can choose from a large number of choices when buying the instrument.

However, if electronic testing equipment is to be purchased it is recommended to take expert advice from a professional who has enough experience in this matter. Although this equipment can be ordered online, the buyer should always contact the manufacturing company privately if a bulk purchase must be made. Buyers must always check the authenticity of the product and after-sales service offered by the manufacturer before making a purchase.